Tanzania - Projects
The organisational capacity of institutions is closely linked to the competences of its human resources. Hence strengthening the capacities of the human resources at national, regional & local levels is likely to have a strong impact on the improvement of the performance of public services.
Building on the lessons learned of the previous scholarships programme and aligning on national strategies, the new scholarships programme puts a focus on long-term investments and on sustainability of capacity building. Therefore individuals or groups of individuals receive scholarships for training that benefits the organisation from which they are emanating.
The programme concentrates on the two priority sectors of the current partnership between Tanzania and Belgium (Indicative Development Cooperation Programme 2010-2013); namely Natural Resources Management and Local Government Reform. The sectors have direct links with MKUKUTA, the Tanzanian government's strategy for poverty reduction and economic growth. Natural Resources Management contributes to the economic development, which falls under cluster 3 of MKUKUTA. Local Government Reform falls under cluster 2, which addresses good governance and accountability.
The scholarships programme aims to contribute to the organisational capacity strengthening of the beneficiary institutions in the sector of Natural Resources Management and Local Government Reform.
- Funding: Belgium
- Budget: € 2596750
- Location: Kigoma Region, Morogoro Region and Pwani Region
Beekeeping is a traditional activity in Kigoma region, where there are many nectar-yielding tree species in natural forest. As a seasonal activity – maximum two harvests per year – honey production is generally a means to earn extra income rather than a sole source of revenue. However, there is significant potential to help Kigoma beekeepers become more productive and more market-oriented, thus increasing their earnings.
In 2011, BTC finalised a project for the development of processing, packaging and marketing of bee products in three districts, including two in Kigoma region. The project saw beekeepers’ incomes increase, but identified ongoing needs for support:
- Community-based processing groups set up by the first project offer beekeepers the possibility to sell pre-processed honey to traders and fetch a much higher price compared to that of raw honey. However, these groups need further experience in doing business with traders outside the region and in dealing with the large volumes of honey required to interest potential trading partners.
- Improved harvesting and preprocessing methods which increase productivity have been introduced, but need further promotion as well as adaptation to specific conditions.
- Marketing aspects such as traceability, quality assurance and packaging are new to many beekeepers, who need further capacity building to help them fetch a better price for their products.
- Access to hives located in forest and game reserves, where most Kigoma honey originates, needs to be guaranteed. The previous project helped establish agreements between beekeepers and reserve managers, but access and user-rights of the beekeeping communities needs to be more institutionalised.
- Further development of stingless beekeeping (on farms) as an alternative to beekeeping in reserves can also increase earnings.
- Beekeepers in all three target districts have limited access to finance needed to expand and improve their production.
Building on the progress of the previous project, the current project aims to enhance the contribution of the beekeeping sector to sustainable development by piloting a model of sustainable beekeeping in the Kigoma region.
Specific results to be achieved are:
- Increased incomes of beekeepers through improvement of production and business skills;
- More efficient and market-responsive honey value chains through better coordination and capacity building;
- Models for protection of key forest and bee forage areas implemented by beekeeping stakeholders and institutions;
- An enabling environment for sustainable beekeeping development enhanced at local, district and national levels.
Direct beneficiaries include over 5000 beekeepers and their families as well as processors’ groups, cooperatives, traders and exporters operating in the three districts. Indirectly, local institutions, traders, shopkeepers and other suppliers as well as local authorities will also benefit.
- Funding: Belgium, Tanzania
- Budget: € 2850000
- Location: Kigoma, Kibondo and Kasulu (Kigoma region)
Enhancement of Procurement Capacity of Local Government Authorities | TanzaniaSector(s): Decentralisation
Duration: 2012 - 2017
Good governance and accountability are one of three clusters targeted by MKUKUTA II, the Tanzanian government’s strategy for poverty reduction and economic growth. Core reforms needed to address governance challenges and institutional performance include better public finance management and use of resources, and ensuring capable local government.
As over 60% of funds allocated to local government authorities (LGAs) go through the LGA procurement system, strengthening the weak capacity of LGAs to manage procurement procedures and planning, and to ensure transparent, efficient use of resources is vital for improving service delivery to citizens.
As well as capacity gaps within LGAs, the Public Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA), also faces challenges. Though responsible for setting standards for procurement, monitoring compliance of procuring entities, and building their capacity, the PPRA faces financial and staffing constraints and has not been able to adequately target LGAs, especially at the lowest levels.
In addition, Regional Secretariats (RS) are supposed to provide backstopping, oversight, supervision and support to LGAs and facilitate them in delivering public services, including in procurement. However RSs are not well supported in their function and they lack adequate, skilled human resources and facilities to be effective.
The overall objective is to ensure systems and structures of governance uphold the rule of law and are democratic, effective, accountable, predictable, transparent, inclusive and corruption free, at all levels.
Specifically, this project aims to sustainably enhance procurement capacity at local government level. Activities are centred on four main areas:
- Enhancing the capacities of central institutions responsible for LGA procurement capacity building and oversight (PPRA and Hombolo Local Government Training Institute);
- Strengthening institutional capacity and procedures for monitoring and supervising LGA procurement performance;
- Fostering accountability and ‘demand’ for better LGA procurement performance by supporting civil society and media oversight of LGA procurement practices;
- Strengthening policy dialogue with Tanzanian stakeholders on reform and improvement to LGA capacity and procurement performance, by supporting action research on LGA procurement practices, incentives and organisational structures.
Direct beneficiaries include those at LGA level (procurement staff and financial management staff) and at the national level (PPRA, PMO-RALG and Regional Secretariats, Hombolo LGTI and media/civil society). Indirectly, local communities and the private sector will also benefit from improved transparency, value for money and accountability of LGA procurement.
Local Government Reform is identified as one of two priority sectors for Belgian cooperation with Tanzania, as outlined in the Indicative Development Cooperation Program (2010-2013). Belgium already gives support in this sector through the Local Government Development Grant System (LGDGS).
- Funding: Belgium, Tanzania
- Budget: € 5000000
- Location: Nationwide
Kilombero and Lower Rufiji wetlands ecosystem management project - Kilorwemp | TanzaniaSector(s): Climate & environment
Duration: 2012 - 2017
The Kilombero Valley in Morogoro Region is the largest low-altitude freshwater wetland in East Africa and is designated as a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention, due to its ecological and biodiversity values.
It is part of the basin of the Rufiji river, which is a source of water and a base of agriculture production of national importance. The valley is home to more than 200,000 people, mostly dependent on the abundant natural resources for their livelihoods; wildlife, forest, fisheries, grazing land and water.
Natural resources in the basin and in particular in the Kilombero and lower Rufiji floodplain are under growing pressure, due to population growth, agriculture intensification, uncoordinated and fragmented land use changes, demand for pastures, and social and environmental change playing out at national and international levels.
The project aims to:
• Strengthen the capacity to implement the framework for sustainable wetland management in the wetlands ecosystem of the Kilombero Valley and Lower Rufiji
• Foster livelihoods development associated with sustainable natural resource management
• Improve local governance and coordination of environmental management systems
- Funding: Tanzania, Belgium
- Budget: € 4231000
- Location: Morogoro Region and Pwani Region
An estimated 7% of 15-24 year olds in Tanzania are infected with HIV; 55% of new infections occur among 15-24 year-olds. Yet understanding of the disease and its causes is still poor, and sex education is not widespread. Teachers face major challenges, including a lack of resources dedicated to HIV/AIDS awareness and persisting cultural taboos.
This project aims to empower young people to protect their sexual and reproductive health by increasing knowledge of relevant age-specific issues. It focuses on a neglected, yet vulnerable target group (primary-aged youth), also involving the wider community - including parents, teachers, and local authorities - to ensure project support and sustainability.
Specific results to be achieved include:
- Creating an enabling environment for HIV/AIDS awareness among youth;
- Strengthening the capacity of the districts in HIV/AIDS awareness programme management, monitoring and supervision;
- Training teachers, school guardians and special school “counsellors” in HIV/AIDS and life skills education;
- Improving in-school adolescents’/youths’ access to curricular and extra-curricular HIV/AIDS information, including through peer education;
- Increase the use of HIV/AIDS support services accessible to adolescents and youth;
- Disseminate information about the programme to national and international stakeholders.
- Funding: Belgium, Tanzania
- Budget: € 1549832
- Location: 7 districts in Dar es Salaam, Kilimanjaro, Arusha and Coast regions
Some 80% of the population in Tanzania depends on agriculture for a living. In Kagera region, farmers face declining productivity due to disease in cassava and banana plantations, land degradation, drought, lack of technology and poor marketing infrastructure. HIV/AIDS and malaria have also worsened the situation by reducing the active labour force.
Food security is further threatened since farmers cannot raise production without inputs, year-round availability of food cannot be guaranteed, and diets become increasingly unbalanced. Studies carried out prior to project launch found that only 12% of the households in the five targeted districts eat three meals a day.
BTC aims to help reduce rural poverty and food insecurity throughout the region, specifically targeting the 2500-3000 most vulnerable households in five selected districts.
The project team works with partners at district, ward and village level to support Participatory Farmers’ Groups (PFGs), either newly-established or already existing. At least 30% of members of each PFG come from vulnerable households, and gender representation is expected to represent that of the community as a whole.
Food security is addressed on three levels:
- Strengthening the capacity of PFGs to design and implement sustainable food security-enhancing projects;
- Integrating PFGs into microfinance systems;
- Increasing the capacity of districts and the project team to manage food security interventions and public-private partnerships for food security.
- Funding: Belgium, Tanzania
- Budget: € 1150000
- Location: 5 districts in Kagera region
Income Generating Activities in Coast and Kigoma Regions - IGA | TanzaniaSector(s): Social and solidarity economy
Duration: 2009 - 2013
Tanzania remains one of the poorest countries in the world, despite steady economic growth during the past few years. Since the 1990s, many state enterprises and services have been privatised or closed following structural reforms, and responsibility for initiating and implementing development projects at the region and district level was devolved to Local Government Authorities. Previously, farmers depended on central government agencies to provide them with key inputs like seeds, tools and fertilisers. The business environment has now changed to one with less regulation, but where business-supporting systems are poor. The regulatory environment is largely inappropriate for micro and small scale informal businesses. Furthermore, many large businesses and lending institutions consider micro-enterprises and Income Generating Activities (IGAs) unprofitable and risky, and therefore withhold technical, loan and support services. Resource-poor regions like the Coastal region and Kigoma are particularly affected.
The project supports governmental and non-governmental structures that enable potentially viable income-generating activities to start up and to grow, without having to depend on charity or supply-driven programme interventions. It supports the exploration of innovative ways to promote local economic development, capitalisation and sharing of experiences.
BTC seeks to connect to existing structures and to strengthen these to create an enabling environment for IGAs to develop, especially aiming at increasing the income of the rural poor, women and youth.
Specific targets under the project include:
- Improving dialogue between all stakeholders involved in local economic development;
- Capacity building at district and lower levels of government on pro-poor local economic development;
- Creating awareness in target groups on available opportunities for economic development;
- Creating new and supporting existing structures to deliver adequate services to target groups (small-scale entrepreneurs, especially the rural poor, women and youth).
- Funding: Belgium, Tanzania
- Budget: € 2162000
- Location: Coastal and Kigoma regions
Support to Local Government Development Grant (LGDG) System - LGDG | TanzaniaSector(s): Decentralisation
Duration: 2009 - 2014
Ensuring local government authorities are able to fulfill the needs of their constituents is one of the most effective means of achieving development that benefits the people. Tanzania is currently undergoing complex reforms to decentralise responsibilities and resources to local authorities.
Why support local government development?
Economic and social development requires a government able to respond to the needs of its citizens. Delivering public services at local level – districts, towns, cities or municipalities – means service providers are closer to the population and can respond to their needs more efficiently. When local authorities are democratically elected, citizens also have a more direct say in public service delivery.
Why does Tanzania need assistance?
After the economic failure of many years under a heavily centralised, socialist system, Tanzania began a process of decentralisation by devolution in the late 1990s. Unlike other forms of decentralisation, devolution involves the transfer of responsibilities, accountabilities, and finances for the delivery of public services from central government ministries to local government authorities (LGAs). This requires political will from central government to hand over control and resources, as well as sufficient capacity within the local government system to effectively deliver services in a responsive, transparent and accountable manner. It also requires legislative and policy reform to enable devolution processes to occur. Given the complexity of such a long term, government- and nation-wide process, Tanzania has requested support from international donors.
The LGDG System establishes a means to transfer finance to Local Government Authorities in a fair and transparent way. BTC supports the LGDG System with a combination of budgetary aid and technical assistance.
What is the Local Government Development Grant System?
The Government of Tanzania, through the Prime Minister’s Office – Regional Administration, Local Government (PMO-RALG), has created the Local Government Development Grant (LGDG) System. This serves as a mechanism to provide discretionary and sector-specific development funds to LGAs.
The primary aim of this system is to transfer funds, including discretionary funds, to the local level, thus enabling LGAs to respond to their constituents’ needs. The current phase (Phase II, 2008-13) aims to establish a fully operational national system for allocating and delivering funds. It also aims to further improve LGAs’ financial sustainability and management capacity.
Key principles of the LGDG System include:
- Universally-applied formula- and performance-based allocation system, ensuring greater transparency and fairness in allocation of funds. It also makes transfers more predictable, enabling better planning, budgeting and utilisation of resources.
- Grants may be earmarked (allocated to specific expenditures) or discretionary (LGAs decide themselves how funds are spent). Discretionary spending empowers authorities to make their own decisions and engages them further in the decentralisation process, rather than having them act on behalf of central government.
What does BTC do?
Belgium provides financial aid (EUR 27m) through a basket fund, to which six other donors also contribute. The basket fund approach reduces administrative transaction costs to the GoT and helps ensures transparency, since money is only released periodically after predefined auditing and reporting criteria are met.
Alongside this financial contribution, Belgium – through BTC – provides technical assistance (budget: EUR 1.6m). Two international advisors work closely with Tanzanian and other funding partners to help the central government oversee and manage those funds, and to support the decentralisation dialogue. They also help ensure coordination of the LG reform process with other governance reforms. Finally, the advisors provide technical assistance for the integration of local government reform perspectives into the General Budgetary Support performance assessment framework (GBS PAF).
Since March 2011, Belgium has co-chaired the Local Government Development Partner Group (LG-DPG), comprised of all bilateral and multilateral agencies working in the LG sector in Tanzania. In collaboration with the other co-chair (Sweden), Belgium coordinates LG sector analytical work, the formulation of development partner positions, and leads LG sector policy dialogue with the Government of Tanzania.
- Funding: Belgium (plus 6 other donors for basket fund)
- Budget: € 28600000
- Location: Dar es Salaam / Nationwide
Sustainable improvement of livelihoods through banana cropping systems | TanzaniaSector(s): Agriculture & rural development
Duration: 2009 - 2013
Some 80% of the Tanzanian population depend on agriculture for a living. In the North-West, banana is one of the staple crops; the majority of production is through subsistence farming rather than commercial production. Drought, pests and disease lower the levels of production in the banana fields. Production levels are also affected by lack of resources, including fertiliser and limited access to credit facilities, and by limited processing, entrepreneurial and marketing skills.
BTC aims to improve livelihoods in seven selected districts by strengthening institutional capacities and public-private partnerships which can promote the sustained spread of farmer-led innovation in banana production.
The project acts on a number of levels in order to achieve this objective, with the following specific targets:
- Institutional capacities and farmer empowerment consolidated, creating an enabling environment for technical and entrepreneurial innovation;
- A sustainable supply of improved banana varieties made available (through public-private partnerships and a farmer-based dissemination system);
- Dissemination of the best banana-cropping and management practices through participatory experimentation and farmer-to-farmer extension;
- Increased and sustained spreading of innovations by improving post-harvest, processing and marketing skills.
- Funding: Belgium, Tanzania
- Budget: € 1500000
- Location: 7 districts in Kagera and Kigoma regions
Community Water Supply and Sanitation Systems in Peri-Urban and Low Income Settlements | TanzaniaSector(s): Water & sanitation
Duration: 2008 - 2013
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania’s commercial capital, has a population of about 4 million inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 4.5 %. A high level of urban migration leads to an enormous number of people settling in unplanned areas, creating high demand for water and sanitation. But with little investment in basic infrastructure, unplanned neighbourhoods suffer from little or no access to clean water, poor or lacking sanitation systems, insufficient waste disposal and lack of drainage on unpaved roads. As a result, frequent outbreaks of diseases such as cholera and diarrhoea are common, and the prevalence of malaria is higher than elsewhere in the city.
The project aims to provide clean, safe and reliable water supply and sanitation facilities and services, in a sustainable manner, in selected peri-urban settlements of the city. Specific targets are:
- Design and installation of 15 water supply systems providing 170,000 people with access to clean and safe drinking water;
- Set-up and operation of Community Owned Water Supply and Sanitation Organizations (COWSSOs) as registered water companies, specially trained to manage and maintain water supply;
- Design and provision of pilot sanitation facilities and services, leading to improved hygiene;
- Documentation and dissemination of models of operation and management, and distribution of information on water/sanitation policies.
Training of COWSSOs, and authorities in hygiene and sanitation will be accompanied by awareness-raising targeting the wider community.
- Funding: Belgium, EU, Tanzania
- Budget: € 3690450
- Location: Dar es Salaam